We must End the COVID-19
Jan. 1, 2021
Author: Mark Abrams
Another pandemic is raging throughout our world. . .
It is the cause of great suffering and death, killing millions of people every year and slowly damaging billions more from the inside out.
The COVID-19 virus has nothing to do with it.
The point of origin of this other pandemic is not known. It appears to spontaneously emerge everywhere humans live. The time of origin is also unknown.
Like the sun dwarfs the moon, this other pandemic dwarfs the current COVID-19 crisis in case counts, severe disease, suffering, and death. In many regions of the world, it is as bad or worse than it has ever been.
It impacts at least two billion of us—over 40% of Americans, over 65% of Hispanic Americans, over 80% of Black Americans. The elderly are disproportionally impacted.        
The scourge I speak of happens without human-to-human contact. For most of human history, the symptoms had been apparent, but the causes had been a great mystery. It is only within the last one hundred years that scientists have come to a full understanding.
The pandemic perpetuates in several ways. One is by staying indoors. Going outside may also present an exposure risk in some areas because what moves through the air is a contributing factor.    
Another significant way of exposure is by eating food originating from denatured soil. This is a rapidly increasing global problem.
The solution or cure to end this other pandemic is well known in every corner of the world.
LIFE-SAVING HEALTH KNOWLEDGE acquired after the deadly 1918 Spanish flu IS BEING IGNORED.
The Spanish flu of 1918 was the most severe modern global infectious disease prior to COVID-19. The flu infected about one-fourth of the world’s population and is estimated to have killed between 50 and 100 million people worldwide. The global nutrient deficiency pandemic (and therefore immune deficiency pandemic) was a contributing factor in its severity.
In 1918, we may have been able to save millions of lives with the information contained herein, except for one thing . . .
It would have been impossible.
Vitamin D wasn’t discovered until the mid-1920s, and it wasn’t until the early 1980s when researchers began to recognize its fundamental importance in immune function. 
Zinc, one of the most important nutrients for healthy immune function, wasn’t discovered to be essential for human health until 1963. 
Early explorers discovered that citrus fruits cured scurvy in 1747, but vitamin C (the nutrient responsible) wasn’t discovered until 1912, and it wasn’t isolated until the 1930s.
Selenium wasn’t discovered to be essential for human health until the mid-1950s.
Vitamin Supplements of any kind didn’t become available until the 1940s.
The overarching point is that we were near clueless about the importance of micronutrients a mere one-hundred years ago.
There are some people who may scoff at vitamins and minerals as an overly simplistic solution to lesson the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The medical research is clear: If you are in a high-risk group and deficient in vitamin D, zinc, vitamin C or selenium, you significantly increase your risk of a poor outcome from this virus. This is about correcting chronic nutrient deficiencies that plague a large percentage of the US and global population at high risk for severe COVID-19 disease and death.
The global nutrient deficiency pandemic is a vast problem in its own right, and it a major contributing factor in severe COVID-19 disease and death.
Over one hundred years ago we could not correct most deficiencies because the missing nutrients had yet to be discovered! If this research paper magically dropped out of the sky in 1918 and landed in your lap, its usefulness would be limited.
This research did happen to reach you from a cloud, and fortunately, you can now immediately take full advantage.
Why are we ignoring this obvious major public-health issue?
From the beginning of this COVID-19 disaster, we have been told to wear masks, keep a distance from each other, and limit the number of people in gatherings.
However, where are the “official” recommendations from government leaders and public health agencies for us to take actions to strengthen our immune systems, protect our lungs, improve our natural ability to fight the COVID-19 virus, and thrive in general?
Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world. --Archimedes
Correcting nutrient deficiencies is by far the lowest of the low hanging fruit. It is the most basic lever--concerning COVID--by which we can move the world. You do not have to take my word for it; the science will now speak.
Much of what I am about to share has been publicly expressed by hundreds of scientists and medical doctors from around the world--more and more each month--especially those outside the orthodoxy--the ones who are willing to take a risk in the name of truth, or at least in the name of plausibility. There are likely thousands more doctors and scientists lurking in the shadows who would like to be more vocal in sharing what follows. Many may be concerned that their reputations and careers could be threatened or outright canceled.
Correcting nutrient deficiencies are simple, scientifically validated, extremely safe, globally-available, and inexpensive actions that we can take to significantly reduce the number of severe COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, days spent in the ICU, and most importantly, the needless suffering and deaths, while dramatically improving the overall health of humanity.
This information must be shared with everyone so that humanity may live, live healthfully, and live freely.
" Do You Believe in Magic?"
--Paul A. Offit M.D. – Pediatrician, Professor of Vaccinology, and Pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. Dr. Offit is co-inventor of RotaTeq, a rotavirus vaccine. He is the author of the best-selling book: “Do You Believe in Magic? Vitamins, Supplements, and All Things Natural: A Look Behind the Curtain.”
. . .
The uncomfortable reality is that many doctors (not all doctors, and especially not those in the emerging specialties of functional and integrative medicine) are not well informed about this topic. In large part, this may be due to a lack of exposure during their medical school training.  
“Today, medical schools in the United States teach less than 25 hours of nutrition over four years. You know, the fact that less than 20 percent of medical schools have a single required course in nutrition is a scandal. It’s outrageous. It’s obscene.” 
--David Eisenberg, M.D., Associate Professor of Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
A subset of conventional allopathic physicians, especially the oldest generation (and even some younger ones, too), tend to be overly dismissive and even scornful toward micronutrient supplementation. 
May this be a watershed moment in finally addressing the crucial role of micronutrients--from food, environment, and supplementation--to work with the wisdom of the body to stave off chronic and infectious diseases and enjoy a healthy life
Evidence-informed medicine versus snake oil
There is no shortage of online snake oil salesmen. Questionable and even dangerous products are being peddled online by scammers and charlatans. Some things being touted as effective preventatives and treatments for COVID-19 may be doing serious harm. Other products may do harm by taking the place of a proven-effective treatment.
The primary objective here is to try to bring some much-needed clarity, to separate "the signal from the noise”, focusing our efforts right in the center of the bullseye, while leveraging evidence-based medicine, and balancing it with a healthy dose of common sense.
THE 4 MOST ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS TO PROTECT US FROM SEVERE COVID-19 DISEASE MEET ALL OF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA:
1. The nutrients have been--as you may have guessed--deemed essential (meaning absolutely necessary) to the human body by decades of well-established medical science.
2. Humans either do not produce the nutrients (technically, vitamin D is produced within the body but requires UV light to form it) or do not make them in sufficient quantities (e.g., vitamin K). We must obtain these nutrients from outside ourselves—usually food, sunlight, or supplementation.
3. There is a strong body of high-quality evidence demonstrating that the nutrients are critical for the proper functioning of our immune and respiratory systems.
4. Following from points one, two, and three, this point is THE LINCHPIN: A high percentage of people in at-risk populations for severe COVID-19 disease and death are deficient in one or more of the specific nutrients. In the United States, that includes Black, Hispanic, and Native Americans, other ethnic groups, and those with specific co-morbidities such as obesity. Elderly people around the world are disproportionately affected.
5. There is a strong body of high-quality research demonstrating that the nutrients have an outstanding safety profile and are very unlikely to cause harm at well-established Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (and even well beyond in many cases) set by US and global public health agencies.
6. There is substantial evidence that the nutrients play a specific role in maintaining a healthy immune response in combatting COVID-19 based on: a) studies demonstrating the overwhelmingly positive impact on primary clinical features of severe COVID-19 disease (e.g., respiratory illness, elevated inflammatory markers, cytokine storm, thrombosis, sepsis), and/or b) observational, epidemiological and randomized-controlled-trial (RCT) studies relating to actual COVID-19 disease outcomes.
7. There is no evidence to indicate that any of the nutrients may do harm to the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 or otherwise interfere with existing standards of care.
Correcting nutrient deficiencies does NOT typically happen overnight.
The body can only absorb and utilize a maximum amount of certain nutrients (i.e. zinc) at a given time.  It can take weeks or months to correct some vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Even when the body can absorb large amounts of a given nutrient, it doesn't necessarily mean that the nutrient is made readily available for use. Vitamin D is a case in point. We can absorb very large doses of oral vitamin D at one time (50,000 IU or more), however, it can take up to seven days for the ingested 'D' to be metabolized and converted by the liver and kidneys into calcitriol, the active form.
Each day that we provide our bodies with the right building blocks, we incrementality move in the direction of better health.
Correcting nutrient deficiencies is NOT in conflict with vaccination. For a vaccine to be most effective, the person receiving it must have a reasonably well functioning immune system. There is a body of research showing that certain micronutrients help to improve vaccine efficacy.    
This discussion is NOT about taking supplements at the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. There is accumulating evidence that this approach is helpful and, of course, better late than never, but I want to make a clear distinction between consuming these substances regularly (prevention or prophylaxis) to develop healthy immunity versus using them at the onset of symptoms (treatment).
Lastly, this paper does not advocate for extremely high doses of vitamins and minerals.
What you can expect from each of the following 4 essential nutrient sections:
>> Why the nutrient is important for your immune, respiratory, and other systems.
>> Research showing the impact of the nutrient on the primary features of COVID-19, including respiratory illness, the deadly “cytokine storm”, sepsis, and other complications.
>> Research showing high rates of deficiency for people at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease and death.
>> Research studies showing a strong correlation (and now some causation) between nutrient deficiency and severe COVID-19 disease and death.
>> Research showing actual rates of deficiency among people in the US and around the world. Many people are aware that vitamin D deficiency is a major problem but may not know that high levels of deficiency also exist for zinc, vitamin C and selenium.
>> The reasons why you may be deficient in the nutrient.
>> Specific risk factors that may increase the need for more of each nutrient.
Jump to an action section:
Normal and deficient blood plasma/serum levels for each nutrient. This information will help you or your healthcare provider interpret your blood lab results to make sure you achieve healthy levels. -->>
Vitamin D deficiency
A Key to Regulating the Immune System
> Over 80% of Black Americans, 69% of Hispanics, and approximately 30% of Whites have been shown to be deficient in vitamin D. 
> The scientific evidence shows a strong association between vitamin D deficiency states and higher rates of COVID-19 infection, severe cases (hospitalization, ICU admissions) and deaths.    
> Over 200 scientists and doctors from 33 countries have signed the Dec 7, 2020 vitaminDforall.org open letter. This letter calls on all governments, and public health agencies to immediately implement widespread increased vitamin D intakes to combat COVID-19 infections, severe cases and deaths. The letter can be viewed HERE.
read more >>
ZINC (Zn) deficiency
Gatekeeper of Immune Function
> ZINC DEFICIENCY IS NOT RARE. At least 20% of US adults over 60 years old and 30% of those in elder-care homes are at risk for zinc deficiency. 
read more >>
Vitamin C deficiency
A Key to Defending the Lungs
> Blacks may be 20% more likely to be deficient than Whites. 
read more >>
Selenium (Se) deficiency
A key to reducing virus harm
> Worldwide, it is estimated that over one billion people (1 in 7) may be selenium deficient.
read more >>
What % of the population at risk for severe COVID
is deficient in two, three, or more essential nutrients?
April 5, 2021
"People with nutritional deficiencies should receive supplements. Zinc or vitamin D deficiencies are not rare, and may contribute to poor immune function. Therefore, even without specific evidence linking supplement use with improvement among people with COVID-19, these supplements may be appropriate for people in whom deficiency is suspected or confirmed." 
--Robert Shmerling, MD
Senior Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing. Former Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School
The near-impossible task in designing proper randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effects of nutrient deficiencies on COVID-19 outcomes.
All of the existing randomized controlled trials looking at the benefits of Vitamin D, zinc, and other nutrients on COVID-19 outcomes, administer the nutrient after the patient tests positive, and usually after admission to the hospital.
At the foundational level, a proper RCT would require recruiting thousands of unvaccinated participants who have no record of a positive COVID-19 test, and who have tested negative for COVID-19 antibodies (naive individuals). Those patients would then need to be lab tested for adequate nutrient (or proxies) blood plasma/serum levels. Study participants who have deficient levels would be randomized into treatment and control groups. Blinding the studies would be near impossible unless non-descript nutrients were distributed to participants.
Participant compliance in taking the nutrient would be challenging, especially getting participants to regularly take a substance to which they have been blinded. Due to widespread knowledge and availability of the nutrients, there is a high likelihood that over the course of the trial, participants in the control group would self administer the nutrient being studied.
Then, there are the obvious equally, or more, difficult challenges in collecting outcomes of patients who subsequently get infected with COVID-19.
It would take thousands, and perhaps tens of thousands of trial participants to form a well-powered study, accounting for all of the confounding variables to net any meaningful statistically significant results.
A more reasonable approach to getting at the answers of how nutrient levels impact COVID-19 outcomes is what has already been done for vitamin D and selenium--large retrospective observational studies, and population-wide epidemiological studies (e.g. selenium soil concentrations in China territories). While those methods have their limitations, and confounders, not all medical knowledge can be practically attained through exacting randomized controlled trials.
Nutrients don’t work alone in a vacuum.
There are roughly 30 vitamins and minerals that our bodies do not produce naturally, and we must obtain them through food, sunshine, or supplementation.
A chronic deficiency of one or more essential nutrients virtually guarantees some level of health problems.
The most important essential nutrient(s) for YOU are likely to be the one(s) that YOU are most deficient in. It could be vitamin D, zinc, vitamin C, selenium, or it very well may be a different nutrient. The only way to know for sure is to pay a visit to your healthcare practitioner and get some lab tests performed.
It is important to keep in mind that nutrients do not operate independently from each other in a vacuum. A few notable examples:
Magnesium is required for the activation of vitamin D.  "People are taking vitamin D supplements but don't realize how it gets metabolized. Without magnesium, vitamin D is not really useful or safe." – Mohammed S Razzaque, MBBS, PhD 
A United States nutrition survey (NHANES) in 2005—2006 reported nearly one half of all Americans have inadequate intake of magnesium.  In a study of 14,000 US participants, approximately half of the people between 25 and 74 years old had insufficient magnesium levels (< 85 nmol/L).  Looking at more severe deficiency (< 75 nmol/L), 12% of Black people were deficient, compared with 5.5% of white people. 
Vitamin K is an essential nutrient involved in blood clotting and plays a role in preventing thrombosis, a condition in which blood clots block arteries or veins. Thrombosis is a common feature of severe COVID-19.  A study in the Netherlands demonstrated high levels of vitamin K insufficiency in severe COVID-19 patients. 
High doses of vitamin D may deplete vitamin K or further exacerbate an existing vitamin K deficiency.  Adequate vitamin K intake should be considered alongside higher-dose vitamin D supplementation.
Vitamin A is another essential nutrient crucial for the proper working of our immune systems and healthy epithelial cells of the nose, throat, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. 
Vitamin C helps to recycle and preserve vitamin E.  Vitamin E is another essential nutrient with diverse effects on modulating the immune response 
Selenium deficiency diseases are closely linked with vitamin E deficiency. 
And so on . . .
Zinc, 'D', 'C', and Selenium supplement dose recommendations from experts.
NOTE: There are no specific product recommendations and no links to purchase anything.
Some supplements may interfere with certain medicines, including antibiotics. If you have concerns, please consult with your trusted healthcare provider.
The COVID-19 preventive dosage recommendations for vitamin D are the consensus of more than 200 medical doctors and scientific experts that have added themselves as signatories to the December 7, 2020, vitamindforall.org open letter.
- 2000 to 4000 IU per day (vitamindforall.org)
**BLACK AMERICANS: A study of the dose-response between vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D blood levels--25(OH)D--in African Americans showed that, over a three-month period, 2000 IU was needed to raise levels to greater than 30 ng/mL (normal) in 63.8% of subjects, and 4000 IU was required to raise levels above 30 in 90.4% of participants. 
- 10,000 IU daily for two to three weeks (if not already supplementing and in the absence of a vitamin D blood test) to raise blood levels into the normal range, followed by the daily dose range above. This is widely regarded as safe. (vitamindforall.org)
“The evidence is clear that vitamin D toxicity is one of the rarest medical conditions and is typically due to intentional or inadvertent intake of extremely high doses of vitamin D.”
-Michael Holick, PhD, MD, Professor, and Director of the Clinical Research Unit at Boston University Medical School and one of the world’s leading authorities on vitamin D. 
Dr. Marik is Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School. He is a founding member of the Frontline Critical Care Alliance (FLCCC).
Dr. Bland is a former Director of Nutritional Research at Linus Pauling Institute at the University of Oregon. He is known by many as the father of Functional Medicine.
50 mg per day (Dr. Marik)
There is evidence that certain forms of zinc such as citrate, sulfate, and gluconate may provide superior absorption over zinc oxide, a commonly available form found in less expensive supplement products.  
It is generally advised that zinc and other mineral supplements be taken separately from foods rich in phytates (phytic acid) such as beans, legumes, seeds, nuts, and grains. Phytates block the absorption of some minerals, including zinc.   
CAUTION: Do not spray zinc up your nose. Doing so has been associated with a loss of smell (anosmia). 
- 2000 mg per day divided into two doses. (Dr. Marik)
- 100 to 1000 mg per day (Dr. Bland)
- 1000 to 2000 mg per day is the amount of vitamin C that Dr. Anthony Fauci has stated (once in a celebrity interview) that he "would not mind recommending".
The selenium recommendations were developed by Ethan Will Taylor, Phd. Dr. Taylor is a Professor of Biochemistry at UNC Greensboro. He is one of the world’s leading experts on the relationship between selenium, immune function, and RNA viruses.
- 100 to 200 mcg per day (Dr. Taylor)
This dose range of 100 to 200 mcg can be found in many basic multivitamin-mineral formulas.
Blood lab test definitions of nutrient deficiency for Zinc, ‘D’, ‘C’, and Selenium
NOTE: It is known that certain infections may cause specific nutrients to drop in measurable levels. This is especially well known with iron, and appears to also be the case with zinc. There is a bit of evidence that vitamin D levels may decrease with an active infection. The nutrients are shuttled from blood serum/plasma to other areas within the body, sometimes because the nutrient is more useful elsewhere, and sometimes because the invader may thrive on the nutrient. 
For this reason, studies that rely on taking nutrient measurements during an active infection may have skewed results, especially when compared to healthy control groups. It is also unclear how the severity of an illness may impact measurable nutrient levels like zinc. Ideally, pre-infection recorded zinc levels could be associated with COVID-19 outcomes, but unlike with vitamin D, this data does not currently exist.
This section provides normal and deficient blood plasma/serum levels for each nutrient.
This information will assist you or your healthcare provider to interpret your lab results so that you may achieve healthy levels.
The blood serum or plasma test that is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status is called 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25[OH]D for short.
All vitamin D levels are stated in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). If you live outside the US and use the alternate metric, nanomoles per liter (nmol/L), multiply the number stated by 2.5. For example, 20 ng/mL is equal to 50 nm/L.
By most current standards, a vitamin D level can be interpreted as follows: 
- 30 and above is considered adequate*
- Between 20 and 29 is deemed to be insufficient
- Below 20 is deficient
- Below 12 (or 10, depending on who you ask) is severely deficient
*Many doctors and research scientists consider a vitamin D level somewhere between 40 and 60 ng/mL to be optimal.  A universal consensus on optimal levels has not been reached and there is considerable debate within the scientific community. Based on three large retrospective observational studies (one in Israel and two in the United States) looking at the relationship between circulating vitamin D levels and COVID-19 positivity rates, there appears to be a significant protective effect against COVID-19 infection at vitamin D levels between 40 and 50.   
All zinc deficiency levels are stated in micromoles per liter (µmol/L). If you are more familiar with micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), multiply by 6.54. For example, 10.7 µmol/L is equal to 70 µg/dL
There is a range of what doctors and scientists define as zinc deficient.
- Below 13.8 µmol/L is the level that some researchers consider suboptimal based on negative changes to immune markers. 
- Below 7.64 is more severe zinc deficiency based on a higher prevalence of severe clinical signs of deficiency (The Japanese Society of Clinical Nutrition). 
It is important to test plasma/serum zinc in the early a.m. in a fasted state. Recent food intake and time of day both have a significant impact on zinc status. Levels may drop between 15 to 20% from morning to afternoon.  
There is a general consensus about what vitamin C blood plasma levels are considered to be deficient, but there appear to be varying standards for optimal and depleted levels.
The blood plasma levels are measured in µmol/L (micromoles per liter) 
One set of standards has the following thresholds: 
- above 28 is normal
- between 11 and 28 is depleted
- below 11 is deficient
There is another set of standards that I’ve come across: 
- above 50 is optimal
- between 23 and 50 is suboptimal
- between 11 and 22 is marginally deficient
- below 11 is deficient
Both sets of standards agree that anything below 11 µmol/L is deficient. Based on research, a vitamin C level above 50 is the level that is sufficient to saturate muscle tissue. 
There is no universal consensus on optimal selenium levels.
Following are guidelines for normal and deficient selenium blood/plasma levels, measured in µg/L (micrograms per L) culled from several research studies.
If you are familiar with µmols/L (micromoles per liter), divide by 78.74. For example, 70 µg/L is equal to .89 µmols/L
- Between 80—133 is a broad range necessary to optimize for certain biochemical functions. A determination of optimal levels based on the research are inconsistent. 
- Below 80 is considered deficient by some standards 
- Below 70 is deficient by many standards 
- Below 20 is the level of severe deficiency that presents a high risk for developing Keshan disease. 
100 years since the 1918 Spanish flu, we are like micronutrient Jedi
The collective science and technology, acquired in the last one hundred years, surrounding essential nutrients is truly astounding, on par with other great human achievements. So, while micronutrients may be simple, they are anything but simplistic.
“There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.”
– Albert Einstein
I like to think of this as a modern miracle.
Since the end of the 1918 Spanish flu, scientists have likely isolated all the physical nutrients essential for human health, have studied them extensively, and have unraveled many of the mysteries of the roles they play within the human body.
For most nutrients, we have strong, compelling research on deficiencies and the impact on human health. Collectively, we have tens of thousands of research studies from all over the world, many of them published in highly respected, peer-reviewed journals.
Thanks to search engines, the NIH’s PubMed, Google Scholar, and specialized research databases, the studies are now universally available, many of them for minimal or no fee.
Through universally available lab testing, along with agreed-upon standards, we can quickly, easily, accurately, and relatively inexpensively measure nearly everyone’s blood levels of most nutrients.
While not yet perfected, research scientists have developed useful deficiency thresholds and optimal levels for most micronutrients. More research must be done to adjust the ranges to be in line with evidence-based outcomes—the nutrient levels required to optimize known biochemical functions and positive clinical results.
We have figured out how to isolate each of the essential nutrients in a laboratory and either synthesize or culture them. We can now inexpensively mass produce micronutrients at scale and quickly distribute them to most of the planet—a monumental feat.
We can correct deficiencies safely, and in most cases, for mere pocket change.
There is still much work to be done for millions of people in the US and billions more in developing and poorer countries. The resources and technology are here. There is seemingly a deficiency of compassion and political will to help humans in need.
Now that we are custodians of this vast knowledge and capability, what are we doing with it during the COVID-19 pandemic?
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This is offered as a gift to the world and is fully supported by donations. Even the smallest contribution helps me to support this effort, and is greatly appreciated.
Medical and Scientific Reviewers:
Thank you to the medical reviewers: Naveen Thomas, MD, MPH, Santosh Rao, MD, and Joshua Rycus, DO. These medical professionals have only reviewed and given their stamp of approval to this research paper ("We must End the COVID-19 immune deficiency pandemic."), and they may not share the opinions or conclusions of the author, beyond the scope of this specific work.
Thank you to my editors, Joe Garofalo, Donna Okray Parman, Kimberly Cortez, Desiree Saltkill, and Rachel Rhodes, for their time, for their valuable feedback, suggestions, and for catching embarrassing mistakes.
In addition to the hundreds of hours I have spent going down rabbit holes, reviewing scientific journal articles, the following humans’ professional work has been especially helpful to the construction of this paper: Chris Masterjohn, PhD, Rhonda Patrick, PhD, Mobeen Syed MD, MS, John Campbell, PhD, Jeffrey Bland, PhD, Ethan Will Taylor, PhD, Ananda S Prasad, MD, Chris Martenson, PhD, Paul Marik, MD, Michael Holick, PhD, MD, Michael T Murry ND, Roger Seheult, MD, Alex Vasquez DC, ND, DO, I would also like to thank the anonymous team behind C19study.com and the anonymous physicians behind Whiteboard Doctor.
These general acknowledgements do not represent the author's endorsements of the individual’s acknowledged, or their full body of work.
All licensed images are from adobe.stock.com
- Zinc image: Composition by author - Inna #299186720
- Vitamin D image: FotoHelin #216497664
- Vitamin C image: Ruslan #336764241
- Selenium image : Composition by author - #223908667, EvgeniyBrobrov #217841658
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