Introducing ivermectin.

Aug. 1, 2021
Author: Mark Abrams

Make IVERMECTIN part of the global standard of care for treatment of COVID-19.

Key Takeways:

>  Findings from over 50 studies worldwide show that ivermectin has high levels of effectiveness in prophylaxis/prevention and early treatment of COVID-19 [203] 

>  Multiple meta-analyses show that ivermectin is at least 85% effective in preventing COVID-19 infection when taken  prophylactically. [203] [205]

>  Wide-scale ivermectin distribution campaigns have been carried out in many countries (including Peru, Mexico, Paraguay, India, Argentina, and Brazil). Consistent large magnitude reductions in COVID-19 case counts and deaths have been realized in areas where ivermectin has been distributed.

>  Ivermectin is globally available, low cost and safe to use in nearly all clinical situations. Given orally it requires no special shipping or handling. [206] [215]
 

>  Ivermectin is remarkably safe. More than 3.7 billion doses have been distributed worldwide over the past forty years. Less than 1,700 adverse event reports had been received by the WHO’s international drug monitoring system.

>  Ivermectin is on the World Health Organization’s list of “essential medicines", and has been an FDA-approved drug for decades.

>  The co-discoverers of ivermectin won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015. [195]

IMPORTANT NOTE: The following is for information purposes only and does not constitute personal medical advise. Furthermore, this project does not advocate for the use of pharmaceuticals developed specifically for veterinary use.

 

What follows is a compilation of the latest research on ivermectin, including summaries of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, meta-analyses and epidemiological data from around the world. Included is testimony from medical and scientific experts who have been involved in ivermectin research and/or have used the drug to treat COVID-19 patients clinically. 

“I personally believe its [ivermectin's] efficacy in COVID rivals that of the discovery of penicillin in treating bacterial infections”
– Dr. Pierre Kory

There is now a pharmaceutical drug widely available that is highly effective in preventing and treating COVID-19 illness. It’s called ivermectin. If you have not yet heard of it, you will, starting now.


Ivermectin is derived from a soil bacterium called Streptomyces avermitilis. It is medicine from the Earth.
 

More than 3.7 billion doses of this remarkably safe, inexpensive, and widely available medicine have been distributed to hundreds of millions of humans over the last 40 years. 

The drug has traditionally been used to treat various parasite infections in both humans and animals. Many people give it to their dogs once a month to prevent heartworm.
 

In 2015, Dr. William Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of ivermectin. [195]
 

In March 2020, a core group of five expert critical-care physicians from major academic centers in the United States formed the Front Line Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCC). Founding members included Dr. Paul Marik, Dr. Pierre Kory, Dr. Joseph Varon, Dr Umberto Meduri, and Dr. Jose Iglesias. Their backgrounds and impressive contributions to the field of medicine can be viewed HERE
 

The FLCCC mission was to develop effective COVID-19 treatment protocols. They have developed a protocol called I-Mask+ The foundation of their protocol is ivermectin. [196] This group of highly published academic physicians is largely responsible for moving ivermectin into the public conversation, at least in the United States. 

The moment ivermectin really began to slip into the public consciousness in the US was on Dec 8, 2020, the day that Dr. Pierre Kory testified as a witness before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. A hearing was held on "Early Outpatient Treatment: An Essential Part of a COVID-19 Solution". Dr. Pierre Kory, President of the FLCCC Alliance, called for the government/NIH to swiftly review the already expansive medical evidence on Ivermectin for COVID-19.

Dr. Kory's video testimony was subsequently removed (censored) from YouTube. It was removed from the FLCCC Alliance's own YouTube channel. It was also removed from Senator Ron Johnson's YouTube channel. The FLCCC Alliance provided an open public response to the removal of the video which can be viewed HERE. The full Senate testimony can be viewed in the opening video to this section, and on the supporting videos page, which also includes timestamps.

 

I have not been able to come up with any generous reason why YouTube would remove official Senate testimony from a highly credible academic physician speaking about a treatment for COVID-19 that has dozens of research studies showing it to be both safe and effective, for which ivermectin does not interfere with any existing standard of care.

Vigorous antiviral activity of ivermectin against COVID-19

 

In an in-vitro study, cells infected with COVID-19 were exposed to 5µM of ivermectin, resulting in a 5000-fold reduction in viral RNA compared with controls. Ivermectin killed almost all viral particles within 48 hours. The drug inhibits the importin (IMP) α/B receptor. At 24 hours, there was a 93% reduction in viral RNA present in samples treated with ivermectin. No toxicity was observed. [197]
 

Other studies have demonstrated that ivermectin has antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses, including 14 different single-stranded RNA viruses. [198]
 

“Ivermectin has high activity against COVID-19. Let me repeat that. Ivermectin, remarkably, has high activity against COVID-19” [199]
--Paul Marik, MD, FCCM, FCCP, Chief of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School.

 

Ivermectin and anti-inflammatory properties

 

A growing number of studies show ivermectin’s anti-inflammatory properties, including its ability to inhibit cytokine production and downregulate NF-ĸB, a master regulator of inflammation and immune responses. [200] [201] [202]

As of July 20, 2021, there are 60 studies (23 peer reviewed) on ivermectin and COVID-19, including over 21,000 patients. Positive results are shown in 92%. Of the studies, 30 are randomized controlled trials (RCTs). --ivmmeta.com

Multiple meta-analyses of ivermectin and COVID-19

The highest form of medical evidence is a meta-analysis which is a quality review and statistical analysis of multiple studies. To date, there have been multiple meta-analyses of ivermectin and COVID-19. 

1. Meta-analysis by @CovidAnalysis (ivmmeta.com)

A real-time meta-analysis (last updated July, 20 2021: version 101) of all 60 studies--30 randomized controlled trials (23 peer reviewed)--on the effects of ivermectin and COVID-19. The ongoing research is being done by one or more anonymous PhD researchers and scientists that call themselves @CovidAnalysis. [203] 

 

All data required to reproduce the analysis (along with methods used) is contained within the project with direct links to primary sources. 

 

The studies include:
 

-13 prophylaxis/preventive trials (before testing positive or showing symptoms) with a total of 11,582 patients: 85% reduction in infection 

-26 Early treatment trials with a total of 3,883 patients: 74% improvement 

-21 Late treatment trials with a total of 6373 patients: 43% improvement 

ivmmeta upd 7-24-21.PNG

The above table shows the results including all available studies—RCTs and observational.  The authors have sliced and diced the data in several ways relating to study design and a focus on different primary end points (positive cases, viral clearance and mortality).  They have run multiple sub analysis: a) including randomized controlled trials, only, b) peer-reviewed trials, only c) an analysis which excludes studies that have critical issues in study design.

 

The full real-time detailed analysis, including all of the studies, can be viewed at ivmmeta.com
 

The overall conclusion:

“Ivermectin is an effective treatment for COVID-19. . . As expected for an effective treatment, early treatment is more successful, with an estimated reduction of 74% in the effect measured using a random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.26 [0.16-0.43]. . The consistency of positive results across a wide variety of heterogeneous studies is remarkable, with 92% of the 60 studies reporting positive effects (26 statistically significant in isolation)."

2. "Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines"

This meta-analysis, published in the American Journal of Therapeutics, included 24 randomized-controlled trials involving 3406 patients. Three of the trials looked at prevention/prophylaxis of COVID-19 infection. [205]
 

Study Conclusions:

-A low certainty of evidence, looking at 3 trials, comprising 738 participants, found that using ivermectin prophylactically (for prevention) reduced the risk of COVID-19 infection by an average of 86%.

-Moderate-certainty evidence found that large reductions in COVID-19 deaths are possible using ivermectin. Analysis of 15 trials found that ivermectin reduced the risk of death by an average of 62%. "The findings indicate with moderate certainty that ivermectin treatment in COVID-19 provides a significant survival benefit." 

 

-"Given the evidence of efficacy, safety, low cost, and current death rates, ivermectin is likely to have an impact on health and economic outcomes of the pandemic across many countries."

 

NOTE: After the conclusion of this meta-analysis, one of the included non-peer reviewed trials, with the largest number of patients (400 patients in the treatment portion of the study, 200 in the prevention/prophylaxis portion), was withdrawn by the publisher (Research Square) due to serious concerns about the integrity of the raw data, and allegations of potential fraud.

The BIRD Group

The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group (BIRD), includes over 50 member doctors and scientists, founded by Dr. Tess Lawrie, one of the lead authors in the above meta-analysis. The advocacy group was formed after an initial meta analysis done by Dr. Lawrie in January, 2021, showing ivermectin's effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. bird-group.org

Expert safety review of ivermectin

Over the past 40 years, more than 3.7 billion doses of ivermectin have been given to hundreds of millions of human beings. 

Between September 2020 and the end of February 2021, a comprehensive safety review of ivermectin based on over 500 articles was performed by Jacques Descotes, MD, PharmD, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Claude Bernard University of Lyon (France). [212] Dr. Jacques is a world-renowned toxicology expert with 40 years experience as an independent consultant to the pharmaceutical industry and government regulatory bodies.

Dr. Jacques's conclusions:

 

-"The assessment of reported adverse events temporally associated with ivermectin treatment shows that the adverse effects of ivermectin used to be infrequent and mild to moderate."

 

-"No greater toxicity of ivermectin has been substantiated in elderly people. . . That ivermectin is routinely used throughout the world to treat scabies in elderly people without major safety issues is noteworthy"

 

-"No severe adverse reactions have seemingly so far been described in relation to off-label studies or clinical trials of ivermectin as a potential prophylactic or curative treatment of COVID-19."

 

-"Only a very few cases of accidental human overdose have been reported despite wide availability of ivermectin as a veterinary and human medicine--usually moderate neurotoxic manifestations with rapid recovery." 
 

-"The available medical data concludes that the safety profile of ivermectin has so far been excellent in the majority of treated human patients so that ivermectin human toxicity cannot be claimed to be a serious cause for concern." [212]

 

ivermectin safety review (2016)


In 2016, a review of ivermectin safety was published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology.

 

Conclusion: "Numerous studies report low rates of adverse events. . . After more than 25 years of use, ivermectin continues to provide a high margin of safety for a growing number of indications based on its anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. [214]

Real-world results from city, state and country-wide COVID-19 ivermectin distribution campaigns.

ivmworld last upd 7-23-21.png

Ivermectin has massive potential to stem the global pandemic, and it already appears to be doing so in many parts of the world.

The FLCCC Alliance has published epidemiological finding from regions with city, state, and country-wide distribution campaigns. The ongoing research is lead by Juan Chamie, Senior Data Analyst.

 

Ivermectin is currently being used in some capacity in at least 34 countries (ivmstatus.com) Extensive public awareness and distribution campaigns of ivermectin have been carried out in including Peru, Mexico, India, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil.

 

Epidemiological data have so far shown that in ALL AREAS where ivermectin has been distributed (or made widely available), there have been large reductions in COVID-19 case counts and deaths as compared to either 1) neighboring cities/states that didn’t receive ivermectin and/or 2) compared to the weeks and months before distribution. What follows is a small sample of the reported results. A more detailed analysis along with visual charts can be viewed at the FLCCC Alliance website, HERE.  

 

Peru
(Last updated Jan 10 2021)

Near to August 2020, Peru began an ivermectin distribution campaign targeted at the elderly and those most at risk for developing severe COVID-19 disease.

 The following charts show the impact of ivermectin on COVID-19 deaths in the nine states that began distribution.

Tayta-Tacna-1024x566.png
Tayta-Puno-1024x572.png
Tayta-Moquegua-1024x566.png
Tayta-Junin-1024x566.png
Tayta-Huanuco-1024x568.png
Tayta-Huancavelica-1024x573.png
Tayta-Ayacucho-1024x571.png
Tayta-Cajamarca-1024x577.png
Tayta-Cusco-1024x570.png

Mexico

In July 2020, the state of Chiapas began an ivermectin distribution campaign. At the time, Chiapas was the only state in Mexico to widely distribute ivermectin.

 

The results were stunning. Chiapas had some of the lowest per-capita case counts and rates of COVID-19 death per capita in all of Mexico.

Mexico deaths before.png
Mexico deaths after.png
Chiapis Mexico - upd Jan 31 2020 - legen

Then, on Dec 29, 2020, Mexico City begins widespread ivermectin distribution to symptomatic COVID-19 patients

Mexico City hospitalizations.png
Mexico City Deaths.png

A large observational trial including over 225,000 people in Mexico City looked at the impact of receiving an early-treatment ivermectin-based medical kit on the rate of of hospitalization for symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients.

 

All of the records of positive tests for COVID-19 registered in a surveillance system from Nov. 23, 2020 to Jan. 28, 2021 were cross reference to hospitalization data over the same period. A control group of 156,468 patients came from those who tested positive prior to Dec 28, 2021, which was the beginning of the distribution of an early-treatment ivermectin-based medical kit. This group was compared to 77,381 patients after implementation of the program. But only 18,074 of those patients ended up receiving the kit, so the remainder were placed in the existing control group. The study observed a risk reduction between 55 - 70% (percent variance depended on sub analysis) of hospitalizations in patients who received the ivermectin-based kit, compared to those who did not receive the kit. [213]

 

Then, in January 2021, Mexico began a country-wide test-and-treat strategy.

Based on Google mobility data, hospitalizations and deaths decreased as individual movement increased, suggesting that the results were not due to lockdowns. 

Mexico Country-wide hospitalizations.png
Mexico Country-wide deaths.png

Regularly updated and interactive versions of the above "COVID-19 in MEXICO" charts can be viewed at tableau.com, HERE.

 

Real-time active, recovered, fatal, and total case counts can be seen on Microsoft's Bing COVID-19 Tracker, HERE.

Paraguay


The state of Alto Parana began an ivermectin distribution campaign in early September 2020. The bolded portion of the dark blue line indicates the timeframe after ivermectin distribution started. The chart speaks for itself.

Source: mspbs.gov.py/reporte-covid19.html. Data Analyst: Juan Chamie (Last updated Jan 10, 2020)

Paraguay weekly case counts.png
Paraguay weekly deaths.png

Uttar Pradesh, India

The state of Uttar Pradesh has a population of 230 million. If it were it's own country, it would be the fifth most populated in the world. 

In the beginning of April, 2021, India experienced a massive surge of new COVID-19 cases. 

On April 22, India's Ministry of Health updated the national treatment protocol to include ivermectin and inhaled Budesonide. Shortly thereafter, Uttar Pradesh instituted a population-wide test-and-treat program. [215] [216]

 

In the last week of April, cases climbed to over 35,000, and deaths reached more than 350 in a single day. By the second week in July, cases dropped to less than 100, and deaths were less than five.

Utter Pradash -- ivermectin.jpeg
Argentina, Brazil, Panama, Slovakia, and Zimbabwe have also introduced widescale ivermectin distribution campaigns. The results are equally as impressive as those for Peru, Mexico, Paraguay, and Uttar Pradesh (India). Analysis and visual charts can be viewed at the FLCCC Alliance website, HERE.
 
There are certainly going to be some confounding factors, beyond ivermectin, that could explain away some of the large-magnitude positive results described, However, could it be that the precipitous fall in COVID-19 case counts and deaths shortly after the implementation ivermectin, in all of the countries presented (as part of an early-treatment program), is just a coincidence?

 
Ivermectin use in the United States
Unfortunately, the use of ivermectin in the US to prevent or treat COVID-19 is very limited. Public awareness is steadily increasing. It is legal for doctors to prescribe ivermectin for off-label use in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 but neither the NIH or FDA has yet to endorse it. Many large pharmacy chains are refusing to fill ivermectin prescriptions.  
As of Feb 11, 2021, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) stated: "There are insufficient data for the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (the Panel) to recommend either for or against the use of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19. The full NIH statement may be viewed HERE.

As of March 5, 2021, the "FDA has not approved ivermectin for use in treating or preventing COVID-19 in humans. They also stated: "The FDA has not reviewed data to support use of ivermectin in COVID-19 patients to treat or to prevent COVID-19; however, some initial research is underway." The full FDA statement may be viewed HERE.

In response to the FDA, the FLCCC Alliance issued a critical public statement: "Misleading FDA Guidance on Ivermectin", which may be viewed HERE.

Responses to common criticism regarding ivermectin for COVID-19


The following are comments that the FLCCC Alliance and other proponents of ivermectin frequently receive. Responses were sourced and updated (last upd. July 26, 2021) from a webinar talk (at the 40 min. mark)  that the Dr. Pierre Kory, FLCCC Alliance, gave on Jan 27, 2021.
 

Comment: The majority of the studies were small

Response: FALSE. Fifteen of the 30 RCT’s included at least 100 patients. And, if the results were deemed to be statistically significant, the trial was big enough to find benefit. The highest form of medical evidence in support of a therapy is a “meta-analysis of a collection of randomized, controlled trials” – not any one individual, even large, trial. To date, there have been at least three meta-analyses.

 

Comment: The majority of studies are observational, uncontrolled trials

Response: FALSE. All of the observational trials had control groups, well matched or propensity matched. Observational controlled trials are the most ethical approach to studying effective therapies in a pandemic. Thirty of the 60 studies were randomized and included over 5,200 patients.

 

Comment: The majority of the studies have not been published in peer-reviewed journals
Response: 39 of the 60 trials have been published in peer reviewed journals. EVERY therapeutic used in the treatment of COVID-19 was adopted from pre-print data prior to peer review. Inoculations of both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines began prior to even the availability of a pre-print version of the Phase 3 trial data.

 

Comment: The majority of the trials were performed abroad and are not generalizable to our patients.

Response: This reveals an undercurrent of racism, ethnocentrism, and/or immovable skepticism. This deserves no further comment. 

In addition to the above, an extensive list of FAQs from the FLCCC Alliance relating to ivermectin and COVID-19 can be viewed, HERE (FAQ last updated July 23, 2021).

Critical assessment of ivermectin and COVID-19 study published in JAMA (March 4, 2021)

On March 4, 2021, the medical journal JAMA published a study titled: "Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19" [207]

 

This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cali, Colombia, and included 476 relatively young patients (median age, 37 years) who had mild symptoms for 7 days or fewer. Participants were enrolled between July 15 and Nov. 30, 2020. Patients were randomized so that half received ivermectin treatment over a five-day period, and half received a placebo. 

 

The primary endpoint studied was the total time to complete resolution of symptoms within a 21-day follow-up period. The median time to resolution of symptoms was 10 days in the ivermectin group versus 12 days in the placebo group. This showed a benefit but did not reach statistical significance. 

Study conclusion: "Among adults with mild COVID-19, a 5-day course of ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve the time to resolution of symptoms. The findings do not support the use of ivermectin for treatment of mild COVID-19"

 

The full study details including secondary study end points that were measured can be viewed HERE.

The FLCCC Alliance's interpretation of the trial:

Given the unexpectedly low rates of clinical worsening observed along with a limited sample size to detect important differences in time to symptom resolution, a conclusion on the efficacy of ivermectin in mild COVID-19 could not be established. 
 

Open Letter by U.S. Doctors: JAMA Ivermectin Study Is Fatally Flawed

We the undersigned (over 170 signatures) physicians present this letter to call attention to multiple, integral flaws in the Journal of the American Medical Association's recently published paper . . . Above all, the data reported do not support the authors' conclusion that ivermectin is ineffective as a treatment for mild COVID-19. The study’s flaws span subject population, design, execution and controls. The open letter can be viewed HERE

 

10 identified issues with the study:

Issue #1: Young and healthy people are expected to recover well from COVID-19 with or without any treatment.

March 11, 2021

"Because of the abundance of overseas data, it may not be necessary to conduct clinical trials in Japan."

 

"I can't find any treatises that say [ivermectin] dosn't work.

 

"There are no serious side effects." [211]

--Dr. Satoshi Omura, recipient of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for the co-discovery of ivermectin

Ivermectin: A “Bridge to” and “Safety-Net for” an Effective Vaccine Campaign Globally

Vaccine challenges, and unanswered questions

(sourced and adapted from FLCCC Alliance webinar, Jan 27 2020)

 

  • Long lead-time to broad distribution (U.S. and globally)

  • What category of people ARE NOT helped by a vaccine? Those who currently have COVID-19, and those who will contract the virus in the future prior to vaccine availability.

  • All viruses mutate (i.e. Brazil mutation E384 strain – may be resistant to neutralizing antibodies)

  • We don’t yet know how long the vaccines will provide protection against COVID-19 infection. It is too early; we don’t have any data.

 

I don’t think this is a competition. This is a bridge. This is a bridge to vaccination.
 

People are dying today. . . More people will die tomorrow.

Vaccination is not going to save these people. Ivermectin and vaccination are complementary. They are not competing with one another.
 

We have to do everything we can to get this pandemic under control so we can open up this country. We can open up the world. And we can develop some kind of normal life.” [199]

--Paul Marik, MD, FCCM, FCCP, Chief of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School

 

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Acknowledgements:
 

Editors:

Thank you to my editors, Joe Garofalo, Donna Okray Parman, Kimberly Cortez, Desiree Saltkill, and Rachel Rhodes, for their valuable feedback, suggestions, and for catching embarrassing mistakes.

 

General Acknowledgements:
In addition to the hundreds of hours I have spent going down rabbit holes, reviewing scientific journal articles, the following humans’ professional work has been especially helpful to the construction of this paper: Mobeen Syed MD, MSJohn Campbell, PhDChris Martenson, PhD, Paul Marik, MD, and data analyst, Juan Chamie. I would also like to thank TrialSite News, the anonymous team behind C19study.com and the anonymous physicians behind Whiteboard Doctor

 

These general acknowledgements do not represent my full endorsements of the individual’s acknowledged, or their full body of work.

Image Credits
-World map showing ivermectin use: https://ivmstatus.com/
-Epidemiological charts sourced from FLCCC Alliance and Juan Chamie (twitter.com/jjchamie)

References:

 

195. Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015.
[Cited Dec 5 2020] https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2015/summary/ 

196. Front Line Covid-19 Critical Care (FLCCC) Alliance
I-MASK+ Protocol – Downloads & Translations
[Cited Feb 20 2021] https://covid19criticalcare.com/i-mask-prophylaxis-treatment-protocol/i-mask-protocol-translations/

197. Leon Caly, Julian Druce, Mike Catton, et al.
The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
Antiviral Research 2020; 178: 104787.
https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.antiviral.2020.104787

198. Fatemeh Heidary, Reza Gharebaghi
Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen
The Journal of Antibiotics 2020; 12: 1 – 10.
https://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fs41429-020-0336-z

199. FLCCC Alliance Press Conference 2020 Dec 4
FLCCC Alliance Press Conference – December 4, 2020: IVERMECTIN [Video].
https://youtu.be/MEk-VOufVGQ

200. Xinxin Ci, Hongyu Li, Qinlei Yu, et al.
Avermectin exerts anti-inflammatory effect by downregulating the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation pathway
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 2009; 23(4): 449 – 455.
https://europepmc.org/article/med/19453757

201. Carlota Colomer, Laura Marruecos, Anna Vert, et al.
NF-κB Members Left Home: NF-κB-Independent Roles in Cancer
Biomedicines 2017; 5(2): 26.
https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fbiomedicines5020026

 

202. X Zhang, Y Song, X Ci, et al.
Ivermectin inhibits LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and improves LPS-induced survival in mice
Inflammation Research 2008; 57(11): 524 – 529.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-008-8007-8

203. @CovidAnalysis
Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 41 studies (Version 34, Feb 20, 2020)
[Cited Feb 20, 2021] https://ivmmeta.com/  

204. Andrew Hill, Anna Garratt, Jacob Levi, et al. 
Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection

Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2021; ofab358
https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab358 

205. Andrew Bryant, Theresa Lawrie, Therese Dowswell, et al. 
Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines
American Journal of Therapeutics; 2021; 28(4): e434-e460
https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402

 

206. FLCCC Alliance
FLCCC Alliance Response to the NIH Guideline Committee Recommendation on Ivermectin use in COVID-19 dated January 14th, 2021
[Cited Feb 20, 2021] https://covid19criticalcare.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/FLCCC-Alliance-Response-to-the-NIH-Guideline-Committee-Recommendation-on-Ivermectin-use-in-COVID19-2021-01-18.pdf

207. Eduardo Lopez-Medina, Pio Lopez, Isabel Hurtado, et al.

Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19
JAMA 2021 online
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.3071

208. CDC
Weekly Updates by Select Demographic and Geographic Characteristics
[Cited Mar 9, 2021] https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm

209. David Scheim, Jennifer Hibberd, Juan Chamie-Quintero
Protocol violations in López-Medina et al.: 38 switched ivermectin (IVM) and placebo doses, failure of blinding, widespread IVM sales OTC in Cali, and nearly identical AEs for the IVM and control groups
OSFPREPRINTS 2021
https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/u7ewz

 

210. Andy Crump, Satoshi Omura
Ivermectin, 'Wonder drug' from Japan: the human use perspective
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B Physical and Biological Sciences 2011; 87(2): 13--28. 
https://dx.doi.org/10.2183%2Fpjab.87.13

211. Daily Shincho

Dr. Satoshi Omura, the discoverer of "ivermectin", complains that "special approval should be given".
[Cited Mar 17, 2021] https://www.dailyshincho.jp/article/2021/03141057/

212. Jacques Descotes
Expert Review Report: Medical Safety of Ivermectin
[Cited Mar 1, 2021] https://www.medincell.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Clinical_Safety_of_Ivermectin-March_2021.pdf 

213. Jose Merino, Victor Hugo Borja, Oliva Lopez, et al. 
Ivermectin and the odds of hospitalization due to COVID-19: evidence from a quasi-experimental analysis based on a public intervention in Mexico City
SocArXiv Papers 2021
https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/r93g4

214. Leon Kircik, James Del Rosso, Alison Layton, et al.
Over 25 Years of Clinical Experience with Ivermectin: An Overview of Safety for an Increasing Number of Indications
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 2016; 15(3): 325-332. 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26954318/ 

215. TrailSite News
The Outbreak in India: Initial Review of the Data
[Cited July 24, 2021] https://trialsitenews.com/the-outbreak-in-india-initial-review-of-the-data/ 

216. Government of India--Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Revised guidelines for Home Isolation of mild /asymptomatic COVID-19 cases

[Cited July 24, 2021] https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/RevisedguidelinesforHomeIsolationofmildasymptomaticCOVID19cases.pdf